Sorensen on Begging the Question Analysis.
Inductive Fallacies Hasty generalization: The sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population.
Jevons observes that petitio principii often occurs when Saxon, Latin, or Greek words are used arguments which express the much the same thing in different terms.
Recognition: Everyone recognizes the person as an authority, therefore what he says must be true.
These ideas are often used as axioms, which are definitions taken to be true ( tautological assumptions and cannot be used to test themselves, for doing so would lead to only two consequences: consistency ( circular reasoning ) or exception (self- contradiction ).Sometimes those involved internalize buy into the "job" and make the task a part of their own ethos. .Are Circular Arguments Necessarily Vicious?, American Philosophical Quarterly.That is, circular reasoning is not simply missing the point at issue.Now they want us to believe that ordinary water is nothing but H2O.If the proof is never provided it becomes Proof by Infinite Neglect.He believed such claims were illegitimate, and thus a form of theft from the commons."Eliminative Materialism, Cognitive Suicide, and Begging the Question".It may also be called Canute Syndrome or Deification Syndrome, attributing godlike powers to the most powerful figure on the scene.The Birthday Demonstration illustrates the probability of finding two or more people with the same birthday.Knowability, Believability and Begging the Question: A Reply to Sanford, Metaphilosopphy.
See also Appeal to Closure.
Whether the Reductio ad Hitlerum can be considered an actual fallacy or not seems to fundamentally depend on one's personal view of Hitler and the gravity of his crimes.
Reductio ad Hitlerum (or, ad Hitleram A highly problematic contemporary historical-revisionist contention that the argument "That's just what Hitler said (or would have said, or would have done is a fallacy, an instance of the Ad Hominem argument and/or Guilt by Association.
Fallacies of Distraction, ignoratio elenchi : Latin, meaning "ignorance of refutation".
4 ( 2004 339-348.E.g., "I've been good all year, so one bad won't matter or "After what I've been through, God knows I need this." The fallacy of Moral Licensing is also sometimes applied to nations,.g., "Those who criticize repression and the Gulag in the former ussr.Not rarely, this fallacy descends into gross racism or ethnic discrimination,.g., the demagogy of warning of "Spanish being spoken right here on Main Street and taco trucks on every corner!" See also, Othering, and Dog-Whistle Politics.In logic edit Self-refutation plays an important role in some inconsistency tolerant logics (e.g.Bribery (also, Material Persuasion, Material Incentive, Financial Incentive).